Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:11:22 GMT -5
1021 - Disappearance of erratic and tyrannical Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, probably murdered on the orders of his sister, Sitt al-Mulk. His young son ascends as Fatimid Caliph Ali as-Zahir, under the regency of Sitt al-Mulk.
1021 Saracens recover Sardinia from the Pisan-Genoese.
1021 Henry II appoints Pilgrim, provost of Bamberg cathedral, as Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne.
June, 1021 Fall of Garigliano Tower With the cooperation of Pandulf IV of Capua and Atenulf of Monte Cassino, Boiannes and the Byzantines cross over their territory to besiege the tower of the Garigliano where Dattus is holding out. After three days, the tower falls and Lombard garrison put through the sword (the Normans are spared; some even sign up with the Greek service). Dattus himself is taken to Bari, where after being humiliated on the streets, is sewn up in a bag with a rooster, a monkey and a snake and tossed into the sea.
The ease with which the Byzantines traversed southern Italy and took a tower that was explicitly under papal protection, annoys Pope Benedict VIII to the extreme. He sends out urgent missives to the Emperor to come down and teach the Greeks and the treacherous Lombard princes a lesson.
November, 1021 Henry's Third Expedition to Italy with a 60,000-strong army, over the Brenner pass and reaches Verona by December, where he receives Lombard levies. He proceeds to Mantua and then onto Ravenna, to spend the Christmas with his brother Archbishop Arnold of Ravenna.
c.1021 Death of Arnold of Ravenna, half-brother of Henry the Saint. He is replaced by Archishop Aribert of Ravenna (unrelated to the Milanese namesake).
Early, 1022, Henry II divides his army into three columns, one under Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne, to descend through Rome onto Capua in check, another under the Patriarch Poppo of Aquiliea to head down the middle, and the bulk of the army under the Emperor himself, making its way down the Adriatic coast. They are to meet up at Benevento.
March, 1022 Things start as planned. The Emperor reaches Benevento without trouble. He is met by the Pope Benedict VIII there and soon after by Poppo of Aquileia. They proceed to lay siege to Troia.
In the meantime, Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne has great luck. Abbot Atenulf of Monte Cassino abandons the monastery to Pilgrim (Atenulf will die at sea, en route to Constantinople). Pilgrim proceeds to lay siege to Capua. It doesn't last long. The citizens of Capua, with the tacit consent of the Normans in the guard, open the gates and deliver the hated Pandulf IV to Pilgrim.
Pilgrim then hurries south to see if similar success can be achieved at Salerno. While laying the siege, suddenly Duke Sergius IV of Naples (who was not threatened) rushes down to surprisingly submit himself to the Archbishop.
Spring, 1022, After three weeks of hunger, Troia falls to Emperor Henry (according to some reports, the Byzantine garrison was put through the sword; by other reports, Troia never fell).
Around this time, Archbishop Pilgrim lifts the siege of Salerno (having secured Guaimar III's promise of obedience and hostages) and joins the emperor in Troia. Henry orders the execution of Pandulf IV of Capua, but changes his mind upon the Archbishop's pleading and sends him to Germany in chains.
June, 1022, Outbreak of the plague among the German troops forces Henry to retreat from Troia and abandon his campaign in Italy. The sum of the effort: Henry merely broke one Byzantine border stronghold (if that) and reimposed his suzerainity on the Lombard principalities.
Henry II 'the Saint' of Germany and the captive Pandulf IV 'Wolf of Abruzzi' of Capua
Of the changes made in the south, Pandulf IV is replaced in Capua by the loyalist count of Teano, who ascends as Count Pandulf V ('Teano') of Capua. The monk Theobald is placed in charge of Monte Cassino. And two nephews of Melus - Stefano and Meloe Pietro - are invested with the county of Comino. They will take on much of the remainder of the Norman company. His business done and plague pressing, Henry returns to Rome and thereupon to Pavia.
- Southern Italy, c. 1020s.
Summer, 1022 Synod of Pavia convened by Pope Benedict VIII and attended by Henry II of Germany. Declares celibacy of clergy essential. Recommends that clerics who have married after ordination be expelled from offices.
Fall, 1022 Henry returns to Germany.
1022 Council of Orleans condemns a neo-Manichean heresy (Catharism) that had lately been making inroads in southern France and Italy. First exectution of Cathar heretics in Orleans. One of the accused is the French queen Constance of Arles's own confessor, who, upon begging her to intervene on his behalf, she personally blinds with a blow of her staff.
1022 The wildly belligerent Otto II of Blois takes control of Troyes in eastern France and has himself proclaimed as the first Count Otto I ('Le Champenois') of Champagne. He immediately pursues a war to seize the Duchy of Upper Lorraine from Theoderic I. It takes the concerted efforts of the Kings of France and Germany to foil him.
April, 1024 Death of Pope Benedict VIII. His brother, Romanus of Tusculum, consul and ruler of Rome, ascends of Pope John XIX.
- Romanus of Tusculum, Consul of Rome, Pope John XIX
To overcome oppostion from the Crescenzi branches, Pope John XIX immediately appoints his nephews Guido and Petrus (both of them sons of Alberic III) as count-rectors of Sabine (replacing the Octavian of Sabine).
July, 1024 End of Saxon dynasty. Death of Henry ("the Saint") I of Lombardia/II of Germany, without heirs, thereby ending the "Saxon dynasty" of Holy Roman Emperors. Two candidates, Conrad the Salian (second husband of Gisela of Swabia) and his cousin Conrad the Younger (holder of the Salian family domains in Franconia, incl. Speyer, Worms, etc.) throw their hats into the ring and agree to abide by the electors decision. The forcefulness of Conrad the Salian's former mentor, Archbishop Aribo of Mainz, pushes the election through.
September, 1024 Conrad the Salian is elected and crowned as King Conrad II ("the Salian") of Germany in Mainz, while both he and Conrad the Younger are invested as joint Dukes of Franconia.
1024 Pavia riots News of the death of the hated Henry the Saint prompt the Pavians to rejoice and burn down the imperial palace. An assembly of Italian lords to pick a new king resolves nothing. They send out emissaries to the King Robert II of France, inquiring if his son Hugh Magnus is interested in taking up the throne of Lombardia. Not wishing a quarrel with Germany, the French monarch demures.
1024 At the request of Guaimar III of Salerno, Conrad releases Pandulf IV ('Wolf of Abruzzi') of Capua from German captivity. This is the first of Conrad's several bad decisions in his early search for potential allies in Italy.
November, 1024 Siege of Capua Pandulf IV rushes down to Salerno to confer with his brother-in-law, Guaimar III, on how to recover Capua. They hire the Norman company now led by Rainulf Drengot. They also appeal to catapan Basil Boisannnes, but the Byzantines are preparing an expedition against Sicily, and so can only offer a small company of Greeks. Pandulf V ('Teano') of Capua rallies the defense of the city and withstands the massive siege.
1024 Receiving the alarming news that Emperor Basil II is outfitting a massive Byzantine expedition to invade the island, governor Ahmed al-Akhal appeals to the Zirids of Ifriqiya for help. The Zirids dispatch a fleet, but they are caught up in a storm near Pantelleria and sink.
Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:12:02 GMT -5
1025 Revolt of the French princes - At the urging of Queen Constance of Arles, the three sons of Robert II the Pious of France revolt against their father - Hugh Magnus (heir and co-king), Henry and Robert of Burgundy - who, while invested with titles, have not received much effective control of those dominions.
June, 1025 - Intervention of Aribert. Archbishop Aribert of Milan, still closely allied to the Germans, makes his way to Constance to pay homage to the new German king, Conrad the Salian, and invite him to Italy to take up the Italian crown. In return for his fealty, Conrad grants Aribert of Milan the right to invest the Bishop of Lodi with his temporal domains.
September, 1025 Death of Prince Hugh Magnus of France, son of the French monarch and candidate for the Italian throne. With their mother's encouragement, his brothers Henry of France and Robert of Burgundy continue the fight.
In the meantime, deprived of their first candidate, the Italians dispatch emissaries to interest the Duke William V of Aquitaine. William V of Aquitaine accepts and commences preparations for the journey to Italy.
December, 1025 Death Byzantine Emperor Basil II. He is succeeded by his more pleasure-loving brother Constantine VIII. The Sicilian invasion is called off. The Byzantine catapan Basil Boioannes diverts the massive expeditionary force already assembled on Calabria to join the siege of Capua.
Italian catapan Basil Boiannes grants the request of Archbishop Byzantius of Bari to return under the supervision of the Roman Pope.
1026 Death of Henry I of Ardennes-Luxemburg/V of Bavaria without direct heirs. His nephew ascends as Lord Henry II of Luxemburg but Bavaria reverts to the crown. Emperor Conrad invests it in his own blood-son (from Gisela), Henry the Black, who ascends as Duke Henry VI ("the Black") of Bavaria.
March, 1026 At Aribert's invitation, Conrad II of Germany arrives in Italy. Refused entry in Pavia, he proceeds to Milan and is crowned King Conrad ('Salian') of the Lombards in Milan by the hand of Archbishop Aribert of Milan. Not wishing to go toe-to-toe with Conrad, Duke William V of Aquitaine, who was already en route for Italy, decides to renounce his claim and turns back.
Conrad grants Aribert of Milan dominion over Nonantola Abbey, in return for Milanese military assistance against Pavia.
April, 1026 After spending easter in Vercelli, Conrad proceeds on to Pavia.
May, 1026 Fall of Capua After resisting bravely for 18-months, Pandulf V ('Teano') of Capua realizes that all is lost when the massive Byzantine army joins the assailants. He negotiates the fall of the city with the Byzantine commander, Basil Boioannes, who secures Pandulf V safe passage to exile in Naples, where he will be hosted by Sergius IV. At last, Pandulf IV ('Wolf of Abruzzi') enters Capua in triumph, three years after having been driven out.
Spring, 1026 Starvation of Pavia. With the help of Milanese troops, Conrad punishes the city of Pavia for burning down the royal palace. Conrad condems Pavia to starvation, forbidding the entry of any food into the city. Conrad appoints Archbishop Aribert as his viceroy ("imperial vicar") in Italy and charges him with ensuring that the order is complied.
[A famous exchange ensues between the Pavians and Conrad: the Pavians assert that burning down the royal palace was no act of treachery, since Emperor Henry was dead then and it was "no one's property" (it was customary for the populace to plunder the palaces of sovereigns in-between reigns). Conrad's reply that "the king may have been dead, but the kingdom still existed" introduces a novel concept in Medieval statecraft, tying kingship to an area, rather than a people, e.g. a conceptual shift from king of the Lombards to king of Lombardia. ]
June, 1026 Leaving the bulk of his army at the siege of Pavia, Conrad proceeds to Ravenna. While the Archbishop is well-disposed to him, the people of Ravenna aren't. Seeing his light escort, the Ravennan civic militias shut the town gates and assault the imperial train. But the imperial troops rally and crush Ravenna, taking bloody revenge on the population.
July, 1026 Conrad proceeds to Pesaro, but a malarial outbreak in the heat of summer forces him to withdraw back up north to the milder climate of the Lombard valley. He will spend the next few weeks chasing down and subduing the Arduinic Marquis of Turin and the Obertenghi Marquis Hugh.
Late, 1026 Pavia falls to Conrad's forces. Only the intervention of Odilo of Cluny persuades Conrad to have mercy on the city.
1026 Canossan House of Tuscany - Emperor Conrad defeats Rainier of Tuscany and deprives him of his marquisate. He proceeds to invest Boniface of Canossa as Margrave Boniface III ("Canossa") of Tuscany. The Canossan empire is now enormous.
- Boniface III of Canossa, Marquis of Tuscany.
1027 The capable Byzantine catapan Basil Boioannes is recalled to Constantinople. He is replaced by the less competent Christopher Burgaris as catapan of Italy.
1027 Milanese imperialism Death of the Bishop of Lodi. Archbishop Aribert begins to exercise Milanese muscle and uses his recent powers to appoint Ambrogio de Arluno as Bishop of Lodi, much to the horror of the Lodesans who wanted to continue choosing their own bishop. Aribert uses the Milanese army to force Lodi to submit.
Around this time, Archbishop Aribert also launches an expedition against the the castle of Monforte (near Asti), home of a small Cathar heretical commune. To take hold of the route to Nonantola Abbey, Milan begins encroaching on the territory of Cremona. Archbishop Aribert also establishes a claim on Seprio and Martesana, two districts north of Milan, smack on the German-Italian trade routs, which had been traditionally promised to the Bishop of Como.
Thus in a short while, Lodi, Cremona and Como and the outlying rural lords are driven into alliance with Pavia to contain Milan's new imperiousness.
March, 1027 Not without violent incidents in the streets, Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II of Germany as Emperor Conrad ('the Salian') in Rome. In the cortege, Conrad gives the Archbishop of Milan precedence over the Archbishop of Ravenna, thus confirming Milan's status as the second See in the Italian hierarchy.
- Imperial seal of Conrad the Salian
All the southern Lomband dukes (Pandulf IV of Capua, Guaimar IV of Salerno and Pandulf III of Benevento) pay homage to the Emperor as their sovereign. In this manner, Conrad ratifies the status quo in the south.
April, 1027 Lateran Synod assembled by Pope John XIX. Under the influence of Emperor Conrad, the Synod elevates the Patriarch Poppo of Aquilea. The Patriarch of Grado is reduced to a suffragan see of Aquileia. To drive the point home, Patriarch Poppo of Aquileia captures and sacks Grado.
May, 1027 - Prince-Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen To ensure the valleys from the Brenner pass down to Italy stay open, Conrad the Salian deducts a large county (principality) of Trent from the Veronese March and gives it to Bishop Odelric II of Trent. Similarly, he deducts the county of Brixen (Bressanone) from the March of Carinthia and invests in Bishop of Brixen. (Both counties will be badly encroached upon by the Counts of Tyrol in the future).
1027 Council of Toulouges in Roussillon declares a "Truce of God", forbidding all fighting whatsoever on Sundays, on pain of excommunication. This will be later adopted elsewhere and extended to the entire weekend (Friday to Monday) and all of Advent and Lent. The Truce of God complements the "Peace of God" movement (which limits fighting to certain people and places; the Truce limits it to certain times).
1027 Defeated and driven back to Paris, Robert II of France sues for peace with his sons. Against the queen Constance of Arles's opposition, his eldest surviving son, Henry, is invested and crowned as heir and co-king of France (she favors Robert of Burgundy, a savage brute and spitting image of herself)
1027 Death of Guaimar III of Salerno. He is succeeded by his young son as Prince Guiamar IV of Salerno. Albeit, still young, the regency of Salerno passes to his mother Gaitelgrima of Capua, who happens to be the sister of the bellicose Pandulf IV of Capua.
1027-8 Seeing the departure of the mighty Basil Boioannes and the death of Guaimar III of Salerno as a singular opportunity, Pandulf IV of Capua conquers Naples in a swift operation. Rival Pandulf V of Teano (ex-prince of Capua) flees to Rome (he will die shortly after), while Duke Sergius IV of Naples goes into hiding in Gaeta.
1028 To secure the succession, Emperor Conrad has his blood-son, Henry the Black pre-elected as King of Germany and Italy.
1028 The slide to anarchy in the Fatimid Caliphate is briefly halted by the Fatimid general and vizier al-Jarjai in 1028. A peace treaty is concluded with the Byzantine Empire and the Church of the Holy Sepulchure in Jerusalem rebuilt.
November, 1028 Death of Constantine VIII without male heirs, just two middle-aged spinsters, Zoe and Theodora, as daughters. Three days before his death, Constantine VIII arranges for the hurried marriage of Zoe to Romanus Argyrus, the mayor of Constantinople, who ascends as Byzantine Emperor Romanus III ('Argyrus').
Saracen raiders capture Obbiano (1027) and make an attempt on Bari (1028). Unable to handle the renewed assault, Christophoros Burgaris is replaced by Pothos Argyruys as catepan of Italy.
Amalfi Coup Duke Sergius II of Amalfi (and his eldest son John II) are deposed by his wife, Maria of Capua (sister of Pandulf IV). She installs her younger son as Duke Manso II ("the Blind") of Amalfi.
1029 Pope John XIX revokes the decisions of the 1027 Lateran Synod. The Patriarch of Grado is restored to metropolitan status, detaching it from Aquileia once again. Also places Milan ahead of Ravenna in precendence (but both behind Aquileia?)
1029 The wolf Pandulf IV of Capua is now the de facto dominant power in the south - holding Capua and Naples himself, through his powerful sisters, Salerno and Amalfi, and through his weak brothers, Benevento and Monte Cassino. Only the maritime duchy of Gaeta remains out of his grasp.
Rainulf Drengot, head of the mercenary band of Norman knights in Capuan service, is approached by Duke John V of Gaeta and his guest, the deposed Sergius IV of Naples and persuaded to change sides. With Norman help, Sergius IV recovers Naples from Capuan occupation.
Around this time, John II of Amalfi recovers throne from his mother Maria of Capua and his brother Manso II.
1029 Eppensteiner Counts of Goerz Adalbert ("Eppenstein") of Carinthia invests his son as Count Markward of Goerz (Gorizia), a domain in eastern Friuli. Markward will marry the heiress to the counts of Istria.
Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:13:32 GMT -5
1030 Norman Aversa As payment for his services, the Duke of Naples invests the head of the Norman band as Count Rainulf I ("Drengot") of Aversa (a tiny enclave north of Naples). This is the first Norman fief in Italy.
1030 Death of Duke William V of Aquitaine, one time pretender to the Lombard throne. His son (from first marriage) ascends as William VI of Aquitaine.
1030 Death (suspicious) of Conrad the Younger of Franconia. His kinsman, Emperor Conrad the Salian, takes all of Franconia himself.
1030 Ernest II of Swabia, having coming of age a while ago and still not allowed to run Swabia, quarrels with his step-father Emperor Conrad. The annoyed Conrad deposes Ernest II and invests the duchy in his younger brother Hermann (Gisela's second son from her earlier marriage to Ernest von Babenerg), who thereby ascends as Duke Hermann IV of Swabia.
Ligurian troops under George Maniakes raid Sicily and capture the fortress of Caltagirone, near Catania. It is soon recovered, but the Ligurian mercenaries stay on.
1031 Ahmed al-Akhal of Sicily crosses the straits to Calabria and defeats what remains of the Byzantine army under Porthos Argyrus at the Battle of Cassano in Calabria. The catapan is killed in battle.
1031 Emperor Conrad the Salian appoints Archbishop Pilgrim of Cologne as Archchancellor of Lombardia. Beginning a long tradition, the archbishops of Cologne will continue to hold that office until the 19th C.
- Archbishop of Cologne, Archchancellor of Lombardia
1032 New catapan of Italy, Michael Protospatharios, arrives with a massive army that includes the veterans of the east, to reinforce the Byzantine position in Italy.
1032 End of Burgundy. Death of King Rudolph III of Burgundy without any heirs. He bequeaths his entire dominions to Emperor Conrad, dispatching to him the holy lance and ring of St. Maurice, symbols of Burgundian investiture. (Conrad's wife, Gisela of Wetterau, was a grand-daughter of Conrad of Burgundy and consequently a niece of Rudolph III).
But the inheritance is challenged by the belligerent Otto II of Blois, Count of Champagne, himself also a nephew of Rudolph III. As Conrad is then on campaign in Poland, Otto II invades Burgundy and seizes most of the kingdom for himself. With the assistance of Humbert I of Savoy, the dowager-queen Ermengarda of Burgundy (Rudolf III's widow) flees to the safety of Zurich. Conrad will meet them there and be acclaimed by loyalist Burgundian barons (by some accounts, Humbert alone) as king of Burgundy.
Avoiding occupied Burgundy, Conrad directs his army instead towards Champagne, and devastes the land, forcing Otto II to sue for peace and swear to abandon Burgundy. But he doesn't keep his promise - or need to. The powerful bishops of Burgundy (most of them supporters of Oddo II) prevent the emperor from seizing control of Burgundy.
November, 1032 Death of Pope John XIX. His 18 year-old (some chronicles say 12-year-old) nephew, son of Alberic III of Tusculum, is installed as Pope Benedict IX.
- Benedict of Tusculum, Pope Benedict VIII
1033 Millenial of Christ's death marked by an upsurge in religious activities, notably a plethora of councils, synods and meetings to establish and extend the "Peace and Truce of God" (limiting who, when and where of fighting). Much advanced by the Abbot Odilo of Cluny and his monks (whose vast monastical domains would be made off-limits to feudal warfare). Knights were encouraged to take oaths upholding the peace, on pain of excommunication. This also the first time we see the extension of the Peace of God to merchants and commercial goods, making them immune from feudal violence.
Alas, it is also a year marked by a massive outbreak of violence against heretics (Cathars) and Jews throughout Europe.
Michael Protospatharios is replaced by catapan of Italy by Leo Opos (a.k.a. Constantine).
Spring, 1034 Emperor Conrad takes a Germany army via the Rhone into Burgundy, while two Italian armies, one led by Archbishop Aribert of Milan and another by Boniface III of Canossa-Tuscany head over the Alps and join up with Humbert the Whitehanded of Savoy at Great St. Bernard Pass. The armies converge on Lake Lemano. Otto II of Blois, Count of Champagne and Burgundian pretender, is decisively defeated by the imperial armies at the Battle of Geneva.
The Burgundian inheritance is finally secured. After much difficulty, Conrad the Salian is duly crowned as King Conrad II ('the Salian') of Bugundy.
Much of the aftermath is spent toppling many of the bishops & barons which had supported Otto II and granting their domains to a few loyalist feudal lords. As a result, the subsequent history of Burgundy, unlike Italy, will consequently be dominated by a few rather large lords (the Savoy, Provence, Vienne, the Free Count of Burgundy).
For his assistance with the Burgundian inheritance, Conrad II the Salian grants Humbert I the Whitehanded of Savoy with the Burgundian county of Maurienne (just west of Susa; happens to be Humbert's native county), plus Tarentaise, Chablais and Savoy proper. The rapidly-growing feudal mega-County of Savoy has now command of the two most important western Alpine passes - Great St. Bernard and Mt. Cenis.
Conrad also grants Humbert an imperial vicariate over Burgundy, which, among other things, entitles him to use the imperial eagle (black on gold) as his own coat of arms.
The Holy Roman Empire For the first time, the term Romanum imperium is used to designate the lands suzerain to the Emperor -- specifically, the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Lombardia and the Kingdom of Burgundy. In this manner the 'three-kingdoms' formula, the fundamental borders and constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, is established.
1034 In a spectacular endeavor, Pisans raid Bona, a major citadel on the North African coast.
Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:15:39 GMT -5
SICILIAN CIVIL WAR The narrow success in Calabria emboldens the Sicilian Emir Ahmed al-Akhal to launch a plan for a grand new campaign on the mainland. To finance it, he decides to raise a lot of cash by new emergency taxation (i.e. imposing the 'Christian' tax of kharaj on the Muslim population). Predictably, the Muslim population doesn't take it kindly and erupts in revolt. But Ahmed quickly finds the Arab junds have abandoned him. The straw that broke that camel's back was Ahmed's appointment of his own son, Ja'far, as regent in Sicily, while he was busy with his campaign. Young Ja'far mishandled his brief spell in government. Confronted with the patronage demands of the proud old Arab junds, Ja'far dismissed their right of precendence and assigned Sicilian offices and privileges to relative newcomers from Africa. Incensed at the affront, the Arab nobles take up arms against the Kalbid family. All the old ethnic and tribal tensions break out, a civil war is on. The Sicilan rebels raise Abu Hafs, a brother of Ahmed, as the figurehead of their revolt and appeal to the Byzantines for help.
c.1035 Death of Duke Robert II of Normandy. Against stiff opposition, his illegitimate son William secures succession as Duke William II ('the Conqueror') of Normandy (future king of England). It is precisely around this contentious time in Normandy that Norman adventurers -- many of them sons of Tancred de Hauteville -- begin arriving in Southern Italy and entering the service of local rulers against their Byzantine overlords.
1035 Revolt of the Milanese Valvassores Dispute breaks out in Milan between the major nobles ("captains", hereditary vassals of the emperor & bishop) and minor nobles ("valvassors", vassals of the captains). The latter seek to make their domains hereditary, like the captains had. But the captains, naturally, refuse. Archbishop Aribert sides with the captains and expels the valvassores from Milan to teach them a lesson.
1036 The expelled valvassores of Milan gain the support of the great rural nobility in the outlying regions (esp. Seprio and Martesana, fearful of the Archbishop Aribert's new imperiousness). They are also joined by the army of Lodi. Alarmed at the unexpected alliance in their countryside, Archbishop Aribert issues a ban of arms and leads the Milanese army against the exiles & their new friends. The armies battle it out at the Battle of Campomalo ("Evil Field"), but the outcome is indecisive.
June, 1036 Death of Fatimid Caliph Ali as-Zahir. He is succeeded by his young son, Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir. The capable vizier al-Jarjai will guide the regency for its first few years.
June, 1036 Assassination attempt on Pope Benedict IX, who begs for help from Conrad.
December, 1036 Conrad meets Benedict in Cremona and and celebrates Christmas at Verona.
1036 Reacting quickly, Ahmed al-Akhal captures his brother and rebel leader Abu Hafs. He also pays off the Greeks with a nice treaty. (in the course of which, rather weirdly, Ahmed was granted the Byzantine military title of magistros by the Emperor.)
Zirid Intervention The Sicilian rebels don't give up, however. They call on the Zirid Emir al-Muizz ibn Badis of Ifriqiya, who was then on terrible terms with the Fatimids, offering him the island. The Zirids leap at the chance and dispatch a large expeditionary force under al-Muizz's son, Abdallah ibn al-Muizz. This time it is Ahmed who appeals to the Byzantines for help.
1036 Abdication of duke Sergius IV of Naples, who retires to a monastery. He is succeeded by his son, who ascends as Duke John V of Naples. Seeking to fend off the Capuan wolf, John immediately strikes up an alliance with Guaimar IV of Salerno.
January, 1037 Milanese-Imperial Divorce Emperor Conrad arrives in Milan and meets with Archbishop Aribert, who immediately presses for the emperor's assistance against the exiled knights and their allies. But Conrad, wary of the monster he has created, suggests the valvassores might be in the right and a deal should be cut. Surprised at the lukewarm response, rumors spread that Conrad intends to revoke the Archbishop of Milan's right of investiture in Lodi. Riots break out and force Conrad & his entourage to scamper out of town. Furiously, Conrad makes his way to Pavia.
February, Diet of Pavia assembled by Conrad, where he accuses Aribert of fomenting the Milanese riots. Aribert refuses to respond to the charges, prompting Conrad to order his arrest. Patriarch Poppo of Aquileia (one of Aribert's greatest rivals) carries out the order.
April. After a couple of months, the castle near Piacenza where the captive Aribert is languishing is attacked by Milanese militia, who secure his escape. (in an alternative account, Aribert engineers his own escape by plying his jailers with wine). Returning to Milan, Aribert sets about immediately arming the population and strengthening the city's fortifications. (allegedly, some three hundred towers were quickly raised).
His own army weak, Conrad asks the Pavians for assistance to bring down the haughty Milanese. Despite their old hatred of German emperors, the Pavians hate the Milanese even more, and so happily comply and lend him their militias. Lodi, naturally, joins in the effort too.
The sight of the hated Pavians approaching their gates prompts the captains and valvassores of Milan to patch up their quarrel and rally to the common defense of the city. The Milanese carroccio (ox-drawn battle-cart, carrying the sacred gonfalon) makes its first appearance here.
May, 1037 Siege of Milan Conrad and the Pavians lay siege to Milan at Porta Romana side, but the city holds out. Pope Benedict IX, then in Cremona, lends Conrad a hand by declaring Aribert deposed and appointing a certain Ambrosius to replace him as Archbishop of Milan. When that fails to impress, he excommunicates Aribert. But nobody really gives a damn what this unpopular, silly teenager - himself exiled from Rome by popular revolts - is going on about.
28 May, 1037 Constituio de Feudis (or Edictum de beneficiis Regni Italici) Seeking to drive the captains and valvassors apart again, Conrad issues his famous edict making making all fiefs hereditary in Lombardia, exactly what the valvassores had been demanding. He includes under this anyone who holds fiefs from a marquis, count, lord, bishop or abbot or anybody else (i.e. everyone except those holding fiefs directly from the emperor). In future, no vassal is to lose a fief except when convicted of crime by the judgment of his peers. In this one fell swoop, Conrad undermines the power of the bishops and large lords throughout Lombardia.
November, 1037 Death of Otto II of Blois, Count of Champagne - fittingly dying in battle in yet another aggrandizement quest, (against Godfrey of Lorraine). Archbishop Aribert's urgent missives to Otto II requesting help are intercepted and deviated to Conrad.
December, 1037 Pressing business in Rome finally forces Conrad him to lift the siege of Milan, but he gets Pavia and Lodi to swear to ravage the Milanese lands at least once a year -- an oath which they happily take up.
The catapan Leo Opos dispatches a Byzantine army to Sicily to help defeat the Zirid expeditionary force in 1037. This they do, but, not knowing what else to do after and not trusting Ahmed, the Greeks return back to Calabria immediately.
John II again drives Manso II and Maria out of Amalfi and is restored as duke of Amalfi. He has Manso blinded and exiled to the island of Sirene. John reconciles with his mother, Maria, and allows her to remain as his co-ruler.
1038 Emperor Conrad issues an edict ending the application of Lombard law to Rome and her district, even in cases involving men who live by Lombard law. In this way, Conrad ensures that the previous year's devastaing Constitutio de feudis stops at the borders of the St. Peter, a victory for Pope and high Roman nobility.
1038 Annexation of Capua At Guaimar IV of Salerno's invitation, Emperor Conrad proceeds to hold court in Troia to attempt to resolve the issues in southern Italy. He orders Pandulf IV of Capua to restore the territories of Monte Cassino. Pandulf IV holes himself up in the fortress of Sant Agata dei Goti, and dispatches tribute and his son as hostage to Troia as a token of peace. Conrad accepts, but the son subsequently escapes. Conrad goes on the offensive and seizes Capua, giving it to Guaimar IV of Salerno. Conrad also confirms Salernan overlordship over the Duchy of Gaeta and Richard Drengot's title as Duke of Aversa. Pandulf IV of Capua flees to Constantinople.
1038 Sicilian rebels capture the Palerman fortress of Khalisa, where Ahmed al-Akhal makes his last stand. Ahmed's head is sent to the Zirid prince Abdallah ibn Muizz. But Abdallah has little time to enjoy his victory.
1038 Leo Opus is replaced by Michael Spondyles as Catapan of Italy. He sets up gang-presses to conscript Lombards for the upcoming expedition to Sicily.
Maniakes's Expedition Seeking to profit from the chaotic situation in Sicily, the Byzantine Emperor Michael IV orders a full-scale invasion of Sicily. A large army is assembled under the general George Maniakes for the effort. It includes the Varangian guard under Harald Hadrada (future king of Norway), a Salernan army under Arduin 'the Lombard' (provided by Guaimar IV), a Norman contingent under the d'Hauteville brothers (William, Drogo and Humfrid) and a conscripted army of Apulian Lombards which include Argyrus (son of Melus of Bari taken captive back in 1018, but now released and dispatched by Constantinople to help raise the Apulian levies).
The Byzantine expedition crosses the straits and captures Messina swiftly and follows that up by taking Syracuse (William is said to have earned his nickname 'iron-arm' for defeating the Syracuse governor in single combat there). However, Zirid reinforcements arrive soon after from Africa and keep any further advances in check.
1038 Bavaria + Swabia Death of Hermann IV of Swabia, step-son of Emperor Conrad. Instead of restoring his elder brother Ernest II, Conrad invests the duchy in his own blood son (from Gisela), Henry VI of Bavaria, who ascends as Duke Henry I ("the Black") of Swabia.
1038 Conrad engineers Henry the Black's pre-election as King of Burgundy (having already secured Germany & Italy back in 1028).
Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:16:59 GMT -5
1039 With the support of the Emperor Conrad II and Prince Gauimar IV of Salerno, Norman Count Rainulf of Aversa defeats Pandulf IV of Capua. Capua is annexed by Salerno.
April, Guiamar IV of Salerno annexes Amalfi. Duke John and his son Sergius III flee to Constantinople.
June, 1039 Death of Emperor Conrad the Salian (II of Germany/I of Lombardia). His son Henry VI of Bavaria/I of Swabia succeeds him as Duke of Franconia and King Henry II "the Black" of Lombardia (III of Germany/I of Burgundy). Having been pre-elected as King of Germany and Italy (in 1028) and Burgundy (1032), his succession goes smoothly. The conflict with Milan is suspended.
- Henry II 'the Black' of the Lombards, Emperor (VI of Bavaria/ I of Swabia, Burgundy/III of Germany)
1039 Petty fights break out within the Byzantine expeditionary force. Arduin the Lombard is publically humiliated and beaten by George Maniakes for refusing to hand over a magnificent horse he had captured. The Salernans abandon the expedition in disgust and return to the mainland. In tow, follow the Norman d'Hauteville contingent and the Varangian guard, grumbling about pay and Maniakes's bullying.
Maniakes foolishly picks a fight with the Greek admiral Stephen, blaming him for "allowing" the Zirid reinforcements from Africa to slip through. Stephen happens to be the brother-in-law of Emperor Michael IV. Report of George's misgovernance make their way back to Constantinople, where Stephen reports Maniakes's ambitious designs against the Emperor. Persuaded, the Emperor recalls George Maniakes to Constantinople and places him under arrest.
1039 Petty fights break out within the Byzantine expeditionary force. Arduin the Lombard is publically humiliated and beaten by George Maniakes for refusing to hand over a magnificent horse he had captured. The Salernans abandon the expedition in disgust and return to the mainland. In tow, follow the Norman d'Hauteville contingent and the Varangian guard, grumbling about pay and Maniakes's bullying. Argyrus also makes his way back to Apulia.
Maniakes foolishly picks a fight with the Greek admiral Stephen, blaming him for "allowing" the Zirid landings from Africa to slip through. Stephen happens to be the brother-in-law of Emperor Michael IV. Report of George's misgovernance make their way back to Constantinople, where Stephen notes Maniakes's ambitious designs against the Emperor. Persuaded, the Emperor recalls George Maniakes to Constantinople and places him under arrest.
Nicholas Doukeianos is appointed as catapan of Italy, replacing Michael Spondyles.
1040 SECOND APULIAN REVOLT The conscription of Apulian Lombards by Greek press-gangs to reinforce the Sicilian expedition prompts several outbreaks in Apulian cities. Seeing the opportunity, the grudge-filled Argyrus gives the signal and the revolt becomes widespread. The Lombards quickly overcome many Greek garrisons in Apulia. The insurgents elect Prince Atenulf of Benevento as their nominal leader.
Early 1040, Italian catapan Nicholas Doukeianos is killed by rebels at Ascoli. He is replaced by Michael Doukeianos as catapan of Italy, who arrives with a Varangian army. Knowing he needs more outside help, Michael appoints the Salernan captain Arduin the Lombard as his deputy (topoterites) in Melfi. In the meantime, he begins arranging for the return of the remainder of the expeditionary force from Sicily.
June, 1040 Guaimar IV of Salerno annexes Gaeta for himself.
Fragmentation of Sicily Messina and Syracuse are recovered, but the Zirid prince Abdallah is unable to hold on to his popularity after the reverses suffered to Maniakes. His Sicilian confederates turn against him. Abdallah is soon reduced to holding out with what little remained of his loyalists in Palermo. But they are soon defeated and the Arab nobles of Palermo restore the Kalbids, acclaiming Emir Hasan al-Samsam of Sicily, another brother of al-Akhal.
But the restoration of the pungent Kalbid clan isn't welcomed throughout Sicily and the island fragmented as the regional governors (qa'ids) break with the Kalbid emir.
(1) In the west, Abdallah ibn Mankut becomes master of Trapani, Marsala, Mazara and Sciacca.
(2) In the south, Ali ibn Nimat ibn al-Hawwas takes charge of Agrigento, Castrogiovanni (Enna) and Castronuovo. His background is uncertain. Some sources claim he was Saqaliba, others that he was a Berber.
(3) In the east, Ibn Hawwas's brother-in-law, Ibn al-Maklati, definitely a Berber, takes charge of Catania and gradually begins reducing the Mawali lords (tentative loyalists of the Kalbids) under his rule, albeit in the name of Emir al-Samsam.
March, 1041 Secret conference at Aversa between the topoterites Arduin the Lombard and twelve Norman chieftans, including William and Drogo d'Hauteville. Securing their support, Arduin joins the rebellion and delivers Melfi to the Normans. From Mefli, Arduin and his Normans seize Venosa, Lavello and Ascoli.
Around this time, Guaimar IV of Salerno invests Richard Drengot of Aversa with the Duchy of Gaeta.
Heading up from Bari, the catapan Michael Doukeianos meets the Normans at the Battle of Olivento (near Venosa), but his army is soundly defeated, nearly the whole Varangian guard massacred.
May, 1041, Lombard barons and their Norman allied defeat the Byzantines again at the Battle of Montemaggiore (on Ofanto river, near ancient Cannae).
Having suffered two defeats in a row, catapan Michael Doukeianos is forced to resign and replaced by Exaugustus Boioannes (son of Basil Boioannus) as catapan of Italy.
Summer, 1041 Boioannes rushes up to Melfi, intending to lay siege, but the Normans sortie and set up camp at Monte Siricolo (near Montepeloso). Normans capture a convoy of livestock headed for the Greek camp to force a battle. The Normans whup the Greeks at the Battle of Monte Siricolo in September 1041. Boioannes is captured and handed over to Atenulf of Benevento. The Byzantines routed, the Apulian towns of Monopoli, Giovaniazzo, Matera and, the biggets prize, Bari, declare themselves for the rebels.
December, 1041 Death of the epileptic Emperor Michael IV, soon after a campaign in Bulgaria. Shortly before, John the Eunuch ('Orphanotrophos') had persuaded Empress Zoe to adopt his nephew Michael (son of admiral Stephen) as her own. He now ascends as Byzantine Emperor Michael V ('Kalaphates'). But rather than thankful, Michael V immediately banishes his Machiavellan uncle John and the Empress Zoe.
February 1042, After the payment of a large ransom to Atenulf of Benevento, the catapan Exaugustus Boioannes is released. He is replaced as catapan by Synodianos. The Lombard insurgents and their Norman allies are incensed. They break with Atenulf of Benevento and, overlooking Arduin of Melfi (who had done most of the fighting), decide to acclaim the young instigator of the rebellion as DukeArgyrus of Apulia at a ceremony at Bari.
April, 1042 Uprising in Constantinople against Michael V. The mob brings back Empress Zoe and install her and her cloistered sister Theodora as ruling joint Empresses Zoe and Theodora of Byzantium. Michael V is deposed and blinded.
- Empress Zoe
May, Empress Zoe recalls catapan Synodianos and replaces him with George Maniakes, the disgraced head of the Sicilian campaign, as catapan of Italy. By this time, all of Apulia (save Trani and the very tip below Taranto-Brindisi) is in the hands of the rebels.
June, Empress Zoe marries (her third husband) a Greek bureaucrat who ascends as co-Emperor Constantine IX ('Monomachos') (). Theodora agrees to surrender her co-emperorship.
- Byzantine Emperor Consantine IX 'Monomachos'.
1042 Milanese Revolution The plebs of Milan, having been armed & militarized in their recent conflict against Conrad and the Pavians, turn against the nobles of Milan. Led by Lanzone, a defecting captain, the popular revolt succeeds and Archbishop Aribert and the entire Milanese nobility (captains and valvassores) are exiled from Milan. But, out in the country, the nobles are in their element and erect a string of castles around Milan to blockade the city. Aribert sets up his episcopal court in Monza.
1042 Henry the Black divests himself of Bavaria, investing it in his cousin, Henry II of Luxemburg, who ascends as Duke Henry VII of Bavaria.
Summer, 1042 New catapan George Maniakes goes on a ravenous march through Apulia, brutally reducing the towns that had declared for the rebels. But intrigues back in Constantinople prompt Emperor Constantine IX to recall Maniakes in August and appoints a new catapan Pardos. But Maniakes refuses to yield, and goes into rebellion himself, having his army declare him rival emperor. He captures Pardos and tortures him to death in September.
Argyrus Treachery It is around this time that the Lombard leader Argyrous, then besieging Trani, decides to take up Byzantine bribes and go over to the enemy.
September 1042 Norman County of Melfi With the Lombard rebellion leaderless, the Norman mercenaries assembled at Matera decide to elect William ("Iron Arm") de Hauteville as Count of Melfi and leader of the Normans in Italy.
- House of Hauteville
Sergius III becomes Duke of Naples.
Early, 1043 Duchy of Apulia-Calabria At a grand assembly at Melfi, all the Normans and Lombards acclaim Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno as 'Duke Guaimar ('Salerno') of Apulia and Calabria'. The conquered and unconquered lands of Apulia and Calabria are divided into twelve fiefs and distributed among the 12 Norman chieftans, with a common (undivided) capital at Melfi. Besides confirmation as overall Count of Melfi, William is granted the lordship Ascoli as private fief and Drogo granted Venosa. Rainulf of Aversa, who hadn't been among the original twelve chiefs, is nonetheless granted Siponto and recognizes Guaimar's suzerainity. Arduin the Lombard disappears from the chronicles at this point.
February, 1043 New catapan of Italy, Basil Theodorocanus, lands in Italy to put down both the Lombard and Maniakes rebellions.
Leaving Italy, anti-Emperor George Maniakes lands in Durazzo and proceeds to march across Greece, intending to take Constantinople. He is met by the imperial army at the Battle of Ovanto (in Thessaly), defeated and killed.
1043 Henry the Black of Germany-Lombardia-Burgundy marries Agnes of Poitou, daughter of William III of Aquitaine.
A second Roman uprising forces Benedict IX out of Rome and the election of an (anti-)Pope Silvester III. Benedict returns later that year and deposes his rival.
1044 Second Roman uprising against the Tusculan-backed dissolute boy-pope Benedict IX. The pope is run out of town and the people elect a new (anti-)Pope Sylvester III (of the Stefanian faction, rival to the Tusculans). But the Tusculan nobles (helped by the powerful magnate Boniface of Canossa) rally and run Sylvester III out of town. Benedict IX is restored to the throne.
1044 Sicilian Anarchy Kalbid emir al-Samsam turned out to be a disappointment to the Palerman nobility. Again, he ignores rules of precedence and favors African newcomers with appointments at the expense of the old Arab famlies. Around 1044, the Kalbid Emir Hasan al-Samsam is chased out of Palermo and power was taken up in republican form by a 'shura of the Sheikhs' (a council of Palerman notables, Arab city nobles and great merchants).
Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Feb 23, 2007 23:17:38 GMT -5
1045 Death of the Norman Count Rainulf I ("Drengot") of Aversa. Despite the intrigues of Lombard dukes, his nephew manages to succeed him as Count Rainulf II ("Trincanocte") of Aversa.
1045 Pressured by Roman opposition, tired of the papacy and hoping to marry, Pope Benedict IX abdicates the throne of St. Peter to Archpriest John of Gratian for a tidy sum (part of it enthusiastically contributed by the Romans). John of Gratian, archpriest of St. John Lateran, is elected as Pope Gregory VI. The deal and new Pope is acceptable to the Tusculans, but the Stefanian partisans of ex-pope Sylvester III cry foul and accuse Gregory VI of the high crime of "simony" (purchase of clerical office). Nothing is resolved.
- John of Gratian, Pope Gregory VI
Navigating between factions, Gregory VI relies heavily on the reformist clerics, notably his protege Hildebrand of Soana and his friend, the monk Peter Damian, energetic reformers who sought to bring the papacy and church out of the din of corruption.
1045 Commune of Milan The burghers and the nobles reach a deal for pacification. But realizing they can manage to rule themselves without the archbishop present, informally agree to continue doing so. Archbishop Aribert is allowed to return, but he is very much shorn of his powers. Widely regarded as the beginning of the self-ruling "commune" in Lombardia.
1045 The once-mighty, now-broken, Archbishop Aribert dies shortly after returning to Milan. As had been customary, the great Milanese nobility decide to elect a new Archbishop from among their ranks. Four candidates are considered. But Henry the Black, wary of another Aribert-type, decides to impose a candidate of his own choosing, Guido da Velate (a lowly valvassor) as Archbishop of Milan.
The great nobles & clergy of Milan are incensed at the interference in their prerogative. But they are soon won over when Archbishop Guido continues to condone the rather "immoral" & vice-filled lifestyle the Milanese clergy had been used to (e.g. they were practically indistinguishable from the nobility (from whose ranks, of course, they were drawn); most clerics were openly married or shacking up with concubines, routinely engaged in warfare & other noble recreations, bought & sold Church lands & titles on the market, and basically neglected all their religious duties, letting their parish churches, schools & charities rot away, oft-times stripping their assets & selling them for cash they pocketed for themselves, etc. Being a priest then was quite a racket!)
1045 Henry III the Black invests his duchy of Swabia in Count Palatine Otto of the Rhine, who thereby ascends as Duke Otto II ("Ezzonen") of Swabia, who yields that in turn to Count Henry of the Palatinate (?).
July, 1046 Pope Gregory VI, having tried to navigate the channels between Tusculan and Stefanian factions, satisfies neither. Changing their minds, the Tusculans seize power and have ex-Pope Benedict IX return to Rome. Gregory VI goes into exile in Piacenza and appeals to Henry III for assistance.
1046 Henry III first expedition to Italy - Henry III ("the Black") of Germany/II of Lombardy travels to Italy to secure the imposition of Archbishop Guido de Velate on Milan (and other similarly loyal candidates in other Sees, like Ravenna, Verona & Modena).
October, 1046 Synod of Pavia attended by Henry the Black. Seeking an imperial coronation, Henry III meets with Pope Gregory VI and his reformist friends at Piacenza to discuss the situation. Henry realizes that the simonist basis of Gregory VI's title may cause an imperial coronation by his hand to be deemed illegitimate too. The papal retinue also persuades Henry that he must come and impose order on Rome, and run the Tusculan and Stefanian factions out of the Lateran palace.
December, 1046 Synod of Sutri Henry reaches Rome and a Synod is called whereby all three popes are forced to abdicate - dissolute Tusculan pope Benedict IX (who refuses to show up and is deposed in absentia, on the basis of his abdication), Stefanian-backed Stephen III (deposed on the basis of illegitimate election) and the simonist Gregory VI (advised to depose himself on account of simony). Greogry VI defends himself from the simony charge, citing extraordinary circumstances, but nonetheless agrees to abdicate. Gregory VI is confined to a monastery in Cologne.
- Synod of Sutri
Henry, not being emperor yet, does not have the authority to participate in the election of a new pope. Nonetheless, the clergy and people of Rome beg him to suggest a candidate. Henry III recommends Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen, but the German prelate refuses the honor and recommends Saxon-born bishop Suitgard of Bamberg instead, who is elected as Pope Clement II on Christmas day.
- Suitgard of Bamberg, Pope Clement II
Immediately after the papal enthronement, Clement II crowns Henry III of Germany at St. Peter's as Emperor Henry II 'the Black'. Sickened by the events of the past century, the people of Rome agree to henceforth look to the Emperor to nominate future popes.
January, 1047 Lateran Synod Advised by reformist clerics who seek a more disciplined clergy, Clement II condemns simony. For the posts of honor in the Italian ecclesiastical hierarchy, Pope Clement II puts Ravenna on his right and Milan on his left.
In the meantime, new Emperor Henry II proceeds to southern Italy to cut the ambitious Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno down to size and gets the Norman counts of Aversa & Melfi to recognize the Lombard king (i.e. himself) as their true sovereign and formally invests them with the domains they hold.
Death of the Norman Count William ("the Iron-Arm") of Melfi. His younger brother Drogo (Dreux) de Hauteville takes up the title as Count Drogo of Melfi.
c. 1047 Death of the vigorous Poppo of Aquileia. Replaced by Bishop Gedebald of Speyer as Patriarch Gedebald ("Speyer") of Aquileia.
1047 Henry IV invests Carinthia in Welf III, of the elder house of the Counts of Altdorf, who thereby ascends as Duke Welf of Carinthia-Verona.
October, 1047 In a set-back to the reformist party, Henry's handpicked Pope Clement II dies suddenly. The Tusculans take power quickly and, by liberal use of bribery and the support of marquis Boniface III 'Canossa' of Tuscany, Benedict IX returns to Rome once again.
But in the meantime Henry III of Germany, wiling away in Saxony, had appointed the Bavarian Bishop Poppo of Brixen as the new pope. Poppo made his way to Rome, only to find Benedict IX already in control.
1048 Death of Odilo of Cluny. Ascension of Abbot Hugh ('the Great') of Cluny.
- Abbot Hugh of Cluny
July, 1048 At Henry III's order, the Boniface III of Canossa-Tuscany reluctantly enters Rome and expels Benedict IX. Poppo of Brixen ascends as Pope Damasius II. He immediately excommunicates Benedict IX for simony.
August, 1048 During a malaria outbreak in Rome, Damasius II gets sick and dies.
December, 1048 Diet of Worms At the recommendation of reformist clerics, Henry III the Black appoints his cousin, Bishop Bruno of Toul (from the family of the counts of Egisheim-Dagsburg in Upper Alsace), as successor to Pope Damasius II.
But rather than just accepting the appointment directly from the monarch, Bruno insists on being canonically elected by the clergy and people of Rome. Donning a pilgrim outfit, Bruno sets out for Rome, stopping by Besancon on the way for a conference with the new Abbot Hugh of Cluny and picking up the energetic young monk Hildebrand of Soana.
February, 1049 The Reformation Papacy Bishop Bruno of Toul arrives in Rome as a pilgrim and is received with wild enthusiasm by the people of Rome. He proceeds to be elected and enthroned as Pope Leo IX. Leo IX was also a moral crusader, feeling the clergy should act like, well, a clergy, rather than nobles-with-robes.
- Bruno of Toul, Pope Leo IX
One of Leo IX first acts was to take the Roman militia and smash the Tusculan nobles into submission.
Easter Synod called by Leo IX, renews demand for celibacy for sub-deacons & above and condemns simony.
That done, Leo IX goes off on a one-year trip around Europe to promote the cause of the reformist program among the European prelates. After a Synod of Pavia where he reiterates his position for the Lombard bishops, he proceeds to join Henry III in Saxony, accompanying him to Cologne and Aachen.
October, 1049 Leo IX proceeds to the Synod of Rheims, where he gets the French clerics to confirm his claims on simony and celibacy. Pope Leo IX admonishes the Duke of Normandy about the presence of the Normans in southern Italy.
Council of Mainz called by Leo IX, where the German, French and Italian bishops (and a Byzantine ambassador) are assembled to reaffirm the reformist decrees once more.
May, 1050 Easter Synod II Pope Leo IX returns to Rome after his whirlwind tour and assembles a new Synod to handle the matter of Berengar of Tours. Archbishop Guido de Velate of Milan answers charges of simony and successfully fends off his accusers. On this occasion, Milan sits on the right of the Pope, displacing Ravenna.
Leo IX proceeds to provicincial synods in Salerno, Spoleto and Vercelli.
September, 1050 Leo IX goes back in Germany on another tour.
April, 1051 Easter Synod III Leo IX returns back to Rome for reordination of simonistic bishops.